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“The Christian church must learn to detect the presence of ideologies in their various states and societies…[we] live among semi-fascist, liberal-capitalist, and neo-socialist and communist ideologies of every sort…”
-Johannes Verkuyl, The Message of Liberation in our Age
Serving on a university campus, I cannot help but notice the ways in which such ideologies tear at the fabric of our community, ripping it into ragged blocks with unrealized hopes and dreams for the future of our state, nation, and world. Ideologies clothe human wisdom with absolute authority, and exalt their progenitors with savior-like fervor.
Perhaps, even more worryingly, like the leaven of the Pharisees, these ideologies all too easily infect and spread throughout the church, tearing her apart as well. And as I look around the university campus, as well as the rural communities, and urban centers, I cannot help but see the ways in which these ideologies are seeking to choke out the gospel of Jesus Christ.
So what are we to do? How does the church respond? Verkuyl gives basic, but crucial, advice for anyone who has eyes to see and ears to hear:
Recognize ideologies for the pseudo-religions that they are
Verkuyl lays out six traits of ideologies that are all-too-evident in our world today:
Their totalitarian claims that formulate some sort of eschatological expectations—blue prints for the future—that seek to reshape the whole of life and society.
They are full of half-truths masquerading as the whole truth, catching the eye with clever slogans and, in our day, retweetable lines.
Pseudo-religious ideologies merely serve as means to maintain or establish a position of power and the ability to strike down “the enemy.”
They feed on hate towards any and all who disagree—lacking in love, tolerance, or understanding—utilizing this hate to keep the wheels of progress turning.
Every pseudo-religious ideology is at odds with faith, “demanding of people and societies a loyalty which only the living God deserves. (91)”
They are inclined to denigrate one another with labels and lies, and make an effort to snuff out ideas at odds with their given position.
Detect which one(s) are present in your community, as well as in the church
However, it’s not enough to simply recognize the traits of ideologies in general. In much the same way as we contextualize the biblical text to resonate with our congregations, we must also detect the contextualized ideological forms at work in our midsts. We will fail in our efforts to expose these divisive ideologies in the light of the gospel for the “weak, fallible, human attempts at solving our structural problems, (93)” that they are if we are blind to the specific forms effecting our communities and influencing our neighbors, friends, and fellow believers.
Critically test and evaluate ideologies in the light of God’s law and gospel?
Bringing ideologies into the light of God’s law and gospel helps to clear away all that obscures the reality and truth claims they make. In the light of God’s Word, Verkuyl instructs the church this way: “The Christian church is to ask questions such as:
What are ideologies?
How do they arise?
Who sent them?
Where to they come from?
Whom do they serve?
What do they aim at with respect to God and man?
On what kind of future do they set their sights? (93)”
Openly combat these ideologies by professing and enacting the powerful freedom found in the good news of Jesus Christ and the kingdom of God.
Far from the coercive, restrictive, and silencing nature of ideologies, the Christian church has the liberating, freeing message of the Gospel. Whereas ideologies pressure people to either align with them, or identify with the “enemy,” the church freely offers the message of Christ and the Kingdom, lovingly presenting it in word and deed to a weary, hurting, and hope-starved world. Rather than following in the footsteps of ideologies that divide and pit people against one another, the church can witness to the unifying power of the gospel bringing men and women of all colors, nations, social classes, education levels, and backgrounds together in worship of the true God. Rather than utilizing persecution, job deprivation, social ostracism, political discrimination, or imprisonment to effect our vision, Christians can present to the world a tolerance unlike anything any ideology professes to offer because of our confidence in the sure working of God to effect his redemptive plan in his timing through his instruments in his ways.
All text citations from Johannes Verkuyl, The Message of Liberation in our Age (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1970).
"God does not speak to theologians, philosophers and scientists, but to sinners, lost in themselves, and made into his children through the operation of the Holy Spirit in their hearts. In this central and radical sense, God's Word, penetrating to the root of our being, has to become the central motive-power of all of Christian life within the temporal order with its rich diversity of aspects, occupational spheres and tasks. As such, the central theme of creation, fall into sin and redemption, should also be the central starting point and motive power of our theological and philosophical thought."
-Herman Dooyeweerd, In The Twilight of Western Thought
The heart directs all of human life and action. Often we think it is the mind that directs us in how we live, and move, and have our being. Yet, Jesus declared that out of the overflow of the heart that the mouth speaks, and I would argue, the hands act and the mind thinks. Created to love the Lord our God with all our being in every sphere of life and our neighbor as ourselves, the fall fundamentally corrupted the religious root of our being (the heart). As a result, humanity deluded itself, and (mis)directed this religious root towards the relative and dependent aspects of this temporal world. The Apostle Paul puts it this way: They exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator (Rom. 1:25).
This was the case in Thessalonica. Egyptian gods like Isis and Greek gods like Dionysus, as well as the cult of Cabirus, flourished in this influential city. The Roman Empire, with its Caesar, was honored, praised, and held absolute sway over the city and its people, promising comfort, assurance, and hope. And many found the philosophies and ideas of the teachers and orators to be utterly compelling ways of orienting themselves to the world. Having rejected the true and living Creator God, the people of Thessalonica had made relative, dependent aspects of the creation to be gods: sexuality, politics, and human knowledge.
Not much has changed in two-thousand plus years. Sex and sexuality continue to give rise to new movements that seek to absolutize this aspect and misdirect numerous spheres of life: family, education, government, etc. Political ideologies take people captive with their promises of utopia through totalizing influence (a la communism, socialism, nationalism, etc.). And there is no end to the philosophies and world-views that exalt the self (human reason and sufficiency as de facto gods) over against silly notions of the divine. Sexuality, politics, and knowledge.
So what are we to do?
Look to the Thessalonians. In his first letter to the Christians in Thessalonica, Paul writes: You turned to God from idols to serve the true and living God (1:9).
They turned to God from the dualistic Greek philosophies and hedonism. They turned to God from emperor cult worship and the exaltation of the Empire. They turned to God from fertility gods and sexual religious practices.
But it was not simply a matter of the will. A changing of the mind. No, it was a radical transformation of the being through the power of the gospel proclaimed to them by Paul. As Dooyeweerd so eloquently puts it, God in Christ penetrates to the root of the sinners' being, unmasking their idolatries and reorienting their hearts to the religious root for which they were created: to love and serve God in all aspects of life. This is the good news!
This redemption, renewal and reorientation through Christ laid full claim on not only the hearts of the Thessalonian Christians, but also their minds and lives. The working of the Word by the power of the Holy Spirit laid bare the antithesis facing the Thessalonians: serve the gods of the age as slaves in the kingdom of darkness, or serve the true God as members of his household in the kingdom of light and life. There was no middle ground for them to stake out, no compromise, because these two ways arose from two wholly different religious roots. God chose them in Christ to be a holy people witnessing in their words and deeds to the reality and power of the gospel of Christ and the Kingdom. So, Paul writes them to remind them of this calling, to give instructions on what it looks like to live as the church, and to both warn and encourage them to persevere in the face of rejection and harassment from the wider culture.
In the same way, in Christ, our hearts have been fundamentally renewed and reoriented to the biblical root motive of creation, fall, and redemption. Once again, by the working of the Word in us, we are enabled to rightly view the world around us and see how each aspect of life finds its proper place in service to the true and living Triune God.
But, much like Paul, Dooyeweerd leaves us with a warning. As our Christ-centric, kingdom-witnessing community (the church) grows, engages, and shapes the world around us, it will face opposition from other religious root-motives: dualistic neo-paganism and secular humanism among others. And how we respond to them and their ideas is key. Hold fast to the gospel and the divine Word (both Christ and Scripture), and do not succumb to the sinful inclinations of the human heart to weaken the integral and radical meaning of the divine Word.
Do not quench the Spirit. Do not treat prophecies with contempt but test them all; hold on to what is good, reject every kind of evil. May God himself, the God of peace, sanctify you through and through. May your whole spirit, soul and body be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. The one who calls you is faithful, and he will do it.
-1 Thessalonians 5:19-23
Join us on Tuesdays at 6PM as we begin a series exploring 1 Thessalonians. We meet in the Memorial Union in Room 3534.
A man began to mow his yard.
The reels of the mower were sharp and spun effortlessly. At first, it was easy and the grass cut without difficulty. The man breezed along, finding enjoyment in the work he had been given. But soon, the work became difficult. Though much of the grass was still being cut down by the blades, the man began to notice some spots that needed extra work. And as he continued, he became aware of some stubborn weeds that seemed to remain no matter how many times he went over them. The man became frustrated, and began to tire.
At that moment, the man was interrupted by his wife, who gave him a glass of water. He took a few minutes to rest, and to think about why he was putting in such hard work. Then, he started again, going more slowly over the weeds. To his delight, he noticed that when he went more slowly over them, the weeds would be cut down. As he finished, the man rejoiced, knowing he had done well, but not without the help of the mower, his wife, the water, rest and reflection.
[This was previously posted at Tyler Helfers' former blog, Brevity and Clarity in May 2014]
It was a Sunday afternoon. The sun was descending from its high place in the sky and frost had formed on the windows from the cold wintery air outside. Two students and I sat in my living room discussing their lives as students and followers of Christ. We talked about genetic testing, the pros and cons of commercial farms, sports, greed, the authority of Scripture, church worship practices, and homosexuality. Two hours, and a few cups of tea later, they departed and I was left to reflect on our discussion.
I found myself both encouraged and amazed at the way in which our conversation flowed from topic to topic, academics and faith, research, Scripture and prayer woven together to form the rich fabric of our lives together. In that moment, I realized that this was what the faith community in conversation was supposed to look like; the dwelling of the message of Christ among us as we talked and taught one another in all wisdom and grace, being filled with the Spirit and with thanksgiving to our great God (Eph. 5:15-20, Col. 3:15-17).
Writing on Augustine's Confessions, Dr. David Rylaarsdam conveys the significance of this sort of faith community in conversation on the theologians conversion and Christian life:
In his early life, its theological reflection done with others that helps Augustine slowly convert more and more to God. On his own, his theology is often stuck in ruts: he thinks of God too much in bodily terms, he doesn't balance God's transcendence and immanence, he thinks Scripture is too unsophisticated to deserve his attention. It's his reflections with others that keep him moving forward. The more he is drawn into the faith community, the more he converses with this community's deep tradition of reading life and Scripture, the more he accelerates toward full conversion...It's through this community of theological reflectors that God's voice breaks through the stubborn ears of Augustine's heart. 
All too often, we isolate our lives from the story of Scripture, from the grand redemptive drama unfolding on its pages and extending into human history up to the present day. We fail to see our place in, as Calvin put it, the "theater of God" and how Scripture and life are woven together. As a result, our spiritual lives can seem dry, we can grow cold in our affections towards God and obedience to His ways, and we can become detached from the world around us, failing to love and serve others; proclaiming in word and deed the beauty, truth, and hope of the gospel in our various sphere(s) of influence.
A lot of this is born out of a failure to engage in theological reflection as a faith community. We read the Bible on our own; worship in large, darkened auditoriums as individuals; we pray only in our closets at home. This is why conversation in community is so important; a space for unity and diversity, a safe space for questions and doubt, and a space of encouragement and challenge in walking in the way of Christ. In the case of Augustine, time and again, it moved him beyond the barriers his heart and mind had set up, propelling him forward in taking hold of Christ in faith.
The university is an incredible place for Christians to enter into theological reflection in conversation. It is a place that offers a rich diversity of believers from around the world, with different experiences and viewpoints. It is a place that, perhaps more explicitly than others, sits at the intersection between faith and everyday life, work, recreation and God, the church and the world. How are you engaging in the conversation?
I challenge you in your time at university to theologically reflect on your life. But I also challenge you to do so, not merely on your own, but in conversation with others in the faith community. This will require intentionality, it may require sacrifice (of time), and it will probably have moments of both joy and pain, but it will prove its worth as you grow closer to God, deeper in fellowship with one another, and more confident of your place in God's mission in the world. So let the lordship of Christ in all spheres of life, the rich diversity of the body of Christ, and the powerful living and active Word of God all form you into a mature citizen of the Kingdom of God.
 David Rylaarsdam, For God So Loved The World, ed. Arie C. Leder (Belleville, ON: Essence Publishing, 2006), 206.
"Belief in creation and the practice of and belief in science are often thought to be antithetical. Doubtless there are today challenges in the relationship between the two and I do not intend to try and solve all such challenges. What I do want to do is to try and show that the doctrine of creation, correctly understood and science, correctly understood, complement each other in vital and exhilarating ways."
With these words, Dr. Craig Bartholomew began this year's Areopagus spring lecture at Iowa State University, entitled, "The Doctrine of Creation and the Exhilaration of Science: A Different Approach." And while it was surely a lecture about creation and science, it proved to be far more. In this lecture, delivered to a crowd of fifty university students and faculty members, as well as members of the Ames community, Dr. Bartholomew challenged Christians and non-Christians alike to critically examine their presuppositions when coming to the biblical text, the science lab, and the marketplace of ideas (the public square of the university).
Dr. Bartholomew began by examining Genesis 1 & 2, showing that the doctrine of creation is not a simple thing. In a very clear and succinct way, Dr. Bartholomew walked through some of the contemporary scholarship on these chapters, laying the foundation for his four main points about this crucial piece of the biblical drama that would have a bearing on the rest of his lecture:
- The Genesis account leaves us with a profound sense of God as the all-powerful, majestic king who speaks creation into existence.
- Genesis 1 portrays a universe that is ordered, given its structure, by God's "let there be's"
- The creation account gives an astonishing description of what it means to be human with our meaning and purpose wrapped in being image-bearers of God called to image him in this created world
- Finally, the opening chapters of Genesis portray a world that is not only filled with wonder and awe, but a world that we can know!
Without dismissing the common questions about origins, it was made clear that the doctrine of creation presents us with so much more that this, including a great deal that contributes to the sciences. And this is where Dr. Bartholomew turned his attention to in the remainder of the lecture.
"So powerful have the discoveries of science been that it is easy to expect science to provide the answers to all the questions we have about life. Indeed, a tendency in modernity has been for science to ally itself with naturalism and to relegate religion to the private spheres of our lives, with no public consequences, including in education and university life."
This statement is but one of many that highlight the ways in which our world and life view frame our approach and give shape to our lives, including in the classroom, laboratory, coffee shop, and church. Rather than adopting the prevailing narrative, Dr. Bartholomew proposed that the doctrine of creation presents us with the true basis for all human understanding, including in the sciences. Though it does not provide all the answers to the sciences (and never claims to do so), the doctrine of creation "encourages contemplation and curiosity and provides us with confidence to pursue the truth about the world." And as we engage in the work of science with this framework in mind, we can be truly hopeful about our exploration and learning about the world in which we find ourselves.
"GenESIS 1 enables us not only to pursue science with appropriate confidence but also as a divine calling, an imperative from God, to think, as it were, God’s thoughts after him, to discover his ways in his world."
Turning again to his main points about the doctrine of creation, Dr. Bartholomew encouraged everyone to recognize the vocational component. He challenged those in the sciences to consider why they chose to study biology, physics, chemistry, or astronomy. Motivations born out of amazement and wonder are appropriate, but also love and respect. Love for God and his creation, as well as respect for the task entrusted to his image-bearers to unfold its potential for human flourishing and the glory of God.
Drawing on Kuyper, he brought the lecture to a conclusion by pointing to that which follows the doctrine of creation in the redemptive narrative: the Fall. Sin has caused us to become estranged from the previously organic, natural unfolding of the scientific vocation. Just like the doctrine of creation, science is complex, and much more than merely "collecting facts into our bucket to be arranged in later in a logical order." Rather, drawing on Karl Popper, a better approach to science is that of a torch, understanding that "our identification of the facts and their interrelationship will be heavily influenced by the light we cast upon that which we are studying." Therefore, we have to critically examine ourselves, and the matrix out of which we practice science (our presuppositions) and consider how we account for them. At the end of the day, the doctrine of creation, and a world and life view rooted in the redemptive drama of the Triune God, forms a powerful, hopeful, and exhilarating basis for the practice of science.
Below are a few of the comments from the event:
"I found this a very fascinating perspective on the relationship between religion and science."--Kyra
"I thought the discussion about the purpose of university was most interesting...this is something that needs to happen more."--Sebastian, Physics
"Dr. Batholomew's explanation of the meaning of Genesis 1 was so helpful and very encouraging to my faith."--Ben, Aerospace Engineering
"As a Christ follower, this lecture has allowed me to think more about how we think, and how to approach others with the teaching of creation and its relationship to the gospel."--Luke, Mechanical Engineering
"Occasionally a voice is raised among us to the effect that the sole task of the church is to bring the gospel to the unsaved. How foolish! If the Christian Reformed Church should take that position, the day would not be far off when, for lack of a strong home base, it would find itself incapable of effective evangelism. "
In my last post, we examined R.B. Kuiper's understanding of the motivations for evangelism, and gave a call for reformed churches to passionately pursue evangelism. This week, we turn our attention to that which undergirds the evangelistic efforts of the church (as institute and organism): discipleship.
If the church is going to engage in evangelism well, her members must be built up in the faith; matured through faithful teaching (orthodoxy) and practice (orthopraxy). The creeds, confessions, and the redemptive-historical trajectory of Scripture (Creation, Fall, Redemption, Consummation) are not simply fences for testing whether one is "Christian" or "reformed," but also powerful tools for helping us better understand Scripture, and find our place in the unfolding drama of redemptive history. Furthermore, they challenge us to practice charity, unity, loving-service, and faithfulness in every sphere of life.
Discipleship takes the shape of family worship, of catechesis, and participation in corporate worship. Through such activities--which serve to shape our hearts and minds--we are equipped for evangelism and service (living out the virtues of Christ). We can neither afford to ignore the formative impact of these tools and practices--rejecting them as antiquated, outdated, or irrelevant--nor fail to participate in them because we are "too busy" or "disinterested."
Sadly, as Kuiper points out, this is all too often the case:
The consequence? Kuiper goes on to describe how such a failure leads to a down diminution of the doctrine of the church, and the gospel itself. Like the pendulum of a great clock, church history reveals the way the church has swung between periods of great evangelistic fervor and doctrinal controversy. For the purposes of his book, Kuiper reflects on the rise of protestant liberalism and the social gospel, which arose in the wake of the Second Great Awakening. A lack of discipleship can lead to the "adjustment of Christian message," "a willingness to remove the offense of the gospel," and the watering down of worship.
However, a lack of discipleship can also lead to other consequences: namely, the degrading, distress, and disillusionment of the faith among new Christians. I cannot count the number of times in which I've witnessed new Christians thrust into the evangelistic endeavor only to be beaten down by the questions, objections, and/or ridicule of non-Christians (let alone the physical, emotional, and spiritual effort it takes to do such work). How can one be expected to be prepared to give a reason for the hope they have (1 Peter 3:15) so that they are not tossed to and fro by every wind of doctrine and the cunning and craftiness of those who oppose the Christian faith (Eph. 4:14) unless they are being trained in sound doctrine and practices that reflect Christ and the kingdom of God?
It's important that our churches not become lax in adult education: participation in worship, Bible study, mentorship, and Sunday school. It's important that we continue to catechize our young people, and to engage in family worship. It may require reorienting our lives, cutting things out of our busy schedules, or being creative in the ways we engage in such things, but neglecting these things is not an option. Both are part and parcel of God's calling for the church, and central to her fulfilling her mission in the world.
Evangelism and discipleship exist in a delicate balance. Failure to do one affects the other. This ultimately leads our churches down the broad road that begins with impotent witness, followed by sickness, and ending in death. However, if we make it our mission to glorify God in both evangelism and disicpleship--both as individuals and the church--we will find ourselves on the narrow way towards powerful witness, flourishing, and blessing. So, may we take up the task not only of reformed evangelism, but also reformed discipleship.
 R.B. Kuiper, To Be or Not to Be Reformed (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1959), 82-83
 Kuiper, To Be or Not to Be Reformed, 82.
"The more consistently Reformed a church is, the more active will it be in evangelism."
This is a simple, yet profound, statement from the former Westminster Seminary professor and president of Calvin Seminary, R.B. Kuiper. The connections between Reformed theology and evangelism are so strong that, according to Kuiper, no one has a greater incentive for engaging in evangelism. Why? Because for the Reformed, everything revolves around the glory of the Triune God, and this includes evangelism.
As Kuiper puts it:
In his book, To Be or Not To Be Reformed, Kuiper begins by laying out the more common apologetic for Reformed evangelism: Election. In light of God's gracious choosing of people from every tribe, tongue, and nation (people group), Reformed Christians should approach evangelism with confidence in both the universal gospel and universal church; a message of good news for all peoples and a church of those united to Christ from all peoples. The good news is that the good shepherds sheep hear his voice, they follow him, and no one can steal them away (John 10).
However, it is his second argument--the glory of God--that I find particularly fascinating and compelling. In this argument, Kuiper cuts through the dualism that often marks evangelical approaches to evangelism (the saving of souls for heaven), while also challenging Kuyperian neo-calvinists (Christ's lordship over every sphere of life). And he does so, not by tearing anyone or anything down, but rather by building up, stacking telos upon telos until he reaches the chief end of humanity: to glorify God. Evangelism serves the building of the Church, and the building of the Church provides the foundation for witnessing to the Kingdom of God in all of life, and such witness fulfills our created purpose as image-bearers of God in His world.
Notice, too, what is at the heart of this chain leading to the glory of God: the Church. As institute, the church fulfills her calling to proclaim the gospel and administer the sacraments, sending out the church, as organism, to fulfill her comprehensive calling as witnesses to Christ and the Kingdom. Below is an illustration that may articulate this point better:
So if we are committed to being consistently Reformed, we must engage in evangelism: "But how can they call on him to save them unless they believe in him? And how can they believe in him if they have never heard about him? And how can they hear about him unless someone tells them? (Rom. 10:14, NLT)" It is not an option, nor is it a burden. Rather it is a serious responsibility and incredible opportunity. However, beyond this, we must engage in evangelism because it ultimately serves as a vital way to glorify God. Through the faithful word and deed proclamation of the gospel, we will see the body of Christ, the Church, grow, and the Kingdom advance in the lives of those who entrust themselves to the good and gracious king, Jesus Christ.
*Next week, we will reflect on a brief warning Kuiper presents at the end of this chapter on evangelism in the CRC.
"We must therefore try to rehabilitate for our times the vivid expectation of the early Christians. For beleaguered communities of believers today, hard-pressed by poverty, oppression, and persecution, the consummation holds out hope for a 'sabbath rest' (Heb. 4:9-10). But the 'new order' also offers abundant opportunities for a renewed pursuit of the cultural mandate. There will be times of exuberant worship, face to face with our Lord, no longer restricted to a temple (Rev. 21:22)...But there will also be time for gardening in this Paradise, for constructive activities in this City, time for reading those good books we somehow never get around to, for finishing those half-written letters, for removing the incompletes on our academic transcripts. As my chemistry professor once put it: an eternity to continue running laboratory experiments, probing the unfathomable wonders of creation...In Christ 'all things are [ours]' (1 Cor. 3:21-23). For 'the meek...shall inherit the earth' (Matt. 5:5). Now already all this, and more, is ours in hope--and someday in perfection."
-Gordon Spykman, Reformational Theology: A New Paradigm for Doing Dogmatics (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1992)
"Old systems of exploitation and oppression are passing away and new systems of justice and equality are being born. In a real sense ours is a great time in which to be alive. Therefore I am not yet discouraged about the future. Granted that the easygoing optimism of yesterday is impossible. Granted that we face a world crisis which often leaves us standing amid the surging murmur of life’s restless sea. But every crisis has both its dangers and its opportunities. Each can spell either salvation or doom. In a dark, confused world the spirit of God may yet reign supreme." 
This quotation comes from an article written by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. for an ongoing series in Christian Century on the theme: "How My Mind Has Changed." In it, King chronicle his intellectual and spiritual development, revealing the third way he sought between the fundamentalism he grew up with and the liberalism he adopted early in his adult years; a third way that synthesized theological systems and was contextualized to his experience and circumstances in the American South of the 1950s and 60s.
Having been raised in a strict fundamentalism tradition, King found the allure of liberalism, with its "devotion to the search for truth, its insistence on an open and analytical mind, its refusal to abandon the best light of reason," intellectually satisfying. Through his early life and time at seminary, King uncritically accepted the teachings of Protestant Liberalism with its gospel of love working through reason. However, the more King examined the Scriptures, the world around him, and began to engage the social issues of his day, he quickly found theological liberalism wanting:
It was mainly the liberal doctrine of man that I began to question. The more I observed the tragedies of history and man’s shameful inclination to choose the low road, the more I came to see the depths and strength of sin...[I became] aware of the complexity of human motives and the reality of sin on every level of man’s existence. Moreover, I came to recognize the complexity of man’s social involvement and the glaring reality of collective evil. I came to feel that liberalism had been all too sentimental concerning human nature and that it leaned toward a false idealism. I also came to see that liberalism’s superficial optimism concerning human nature caused it to overlook the fact that reason is darkened by sin.
Much of this came to light through King's study of Reinhold Niebuhr and the neo-orthodox movement. Neo-orthodoxy presented a sobering assessment of humanity's sinfulness, and the insufficiency (or, rather, inability) of human reason properly applied to solve the problems of the age. For the neo-orthodox, one needed more than objective truths or reason, one needed an "encounter" with Christ. And, yet, King could not completely give himself theologically and intellectually over to neo-orthodoxy. Instead, he sought a third way that synthesized the "truths" of both: reason and experience, love and power, tangible and spiritual. What this yielded, in terms of the gospel, was a holistic vision that encompassed the "whole man":
The gospel at its best deals with the whole man, not only his soul but his body, not only his spiritual well-being, but his material well-being. Any religion that professes to be concerned about the souls of men and is not concerned about the slums that damn them, the economic conditions that strangle them and the social conditions that cripple them is a spiritually moribund religion awaiting burial.
Whether one agrees with his theological perspectives or not, King's critiques and journey can prove instructive for us today as we seek to proclaim the power of the Gospel--the good news concerning Christ and the Kingdom of God--over and against the hate, racism, and injustice that persist in our age. We must wrestle seriously not only with Scripture, but also with the evils of our age, and the struggles faced by our fellow human beings. We must recognize our presuppositions and the presuppositions of those we encounter. We must consider how to formulate a theology that is not merely concerned with biblical orthodoxy, but also orthopraxy (belief and practice).
I'm convinced that our hope is firmly rooted in a concern for the "whole man," for we believe that God in the person and work of Christ is at work redeeming and reconciling all things to himself. Our Gospel is one that celebrates the truth that grace restores nature, broken and marred as it is by sin. This restoration includes, but is not limited to, human nature and our relationship with the Triune God. It also includes the restoration of institutions, systems, and the creation itself as the church (institute) proclaims the gospel and administers the sacraments, and the church (organic) is sent out to serve the risen Christ in all spheres of life. Redeemed and renewed by the power of the Spirit, we can live out our divine callings and begin to see glimmers of the future to come: a world radiating with love, righteousness, justice, and peace.
And we can pursue this with a sure hope, because we know (to borrow and slightly amend Dr. King's words) that in a dark, confused world the Spirit of God does, and will, reign supreme.
 This and subsequent quotations from "Pilgrimage to Nonviolence," by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Christian Century 77 (April 1960), 439-441.